Tag Archives: File System

Navigating the Linux File System

Mastering navigating the Linux file system will fasten access specific file or folder. If the Linux OS come with GUI then you got no issue navigating using interface but if the Linux OS is minimal version then navigate using CLI is a must.

First you need to know directory parent and children. Example as below:

Type of DirectoryExample

Listing the Contents of a Directory with ls

The ls command lists the contents of the current directory.

Below show the lists content of home directory.

To show hidden files, use below command.

To include details such as the file/folder permissions, owner and group, size and the date and time, enter the following command:

Here the explanation of the listing newfile.txt

Filetype“-“rw-r–r– (refer to files)

Additional info:
“d”rwxr-xr-x (refer to directory/folder)
Link Count1
Last access date/timeMac 26 09:54

Another useful command as below:

  • ls -R

As you can see the command scans and lists all the contents. The information can be lengthy but you can simplify by redirect the output to a text file. Example as below:

And here the output from the homedir.txt, I using command less for me go through page by page or line by line.

Changing Directories with cd

Use the cd command to move within the file system from one directory to another.


I do a ls command to show available directory. I want to change directory to Pictures, so I use command cd Pictures. You can see the change on my CLI view.

To move up to parent directory use the below command.

To return to home directory use the below command.

Another command below also help you to return to home directory.

Finding Your Current Directory with pwd

Use pwd to check the current directory you have access.

Basic Understanding the Linux File System Hierarchy

Linux file system is inherited from UNIX. Knowing there directories can help you find files when you need them. I also not remember all but it is to know some of it.

/The root directory
/binEssential commands
/bootBoot loader files, Linux kernel
/devDevice files
/etcSystem configuration files
/homeUser home directories
/libShared libraries. kernel modules
/lost+foundRecovered files (if found after a file system check)
/mediaMount point for removable media, such as DVDs and floppy disks
/mntUsual mount point for local, remote file systems, file systems that are additional to the standard, such as a DVD-ROM or another HDD
/optAdd-on software packages
/procKernel information, process control
/rootSuper user (root) home
/sbinSystem commands (mostly root only)
/sysReal-time information on devices used by the kernel
/tmpTemporary files
/usrSoftware not essential for system operation, such as application
/varVariables files relating to services that run on the system, but whose contents are expected to change regularly during normal operation
Basic Linux Directories

To read the ma page for the Linux file system hierarchy. Use below command.

  • man hier

This returns a detailed listing, with a description of each part.

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Create NetVault Restore Job For File System on Same Server

Previous post, I successfully backup the file system from client AD01 and in this post I will do file system restoration on the same server.


  • Menu > Jobs > Create Restore Job.
  • Review the backed up set.
  • Select the backed up set and click Restore.
  • Expend the tree.
  • I will restore NetVault Client Install Software from C:\User\Administrator\Download\
  • Tick the file.
  • Press on the file to perform additional task like rename/relocate.
  • I rename the file and relocate it to restore folder. I didn’t create the restore folder. The restore job will create the folder during the process.
  • Click OK.
  • Review the setting and click Next.
  • Complete the details require.
  • I just fill in the Job Name and left the rest as default.
  • Make sure the Target Client is the same server we backup.
  • Click Save & Submit.
  • View the job status, Menu > Monitoring > Job Status.
  • Below show the restore job is complete.
  • Go to the client and check the directory and the files.
  • Below show the restore folder created and the software is restored.
  • Review the duration for restore from Menu > Monitoring > Job Status.
  • Select the job and click Manage Job.
  • It show average duration is 1 sec to restore average size 59.52 MiB (62.41 MB).

Great! The file is successfully restore. In the next post I plan to test backup and restore more large size for single file and multiple files to see the different.

Create NetVault Backup Job For File System

Filesystem backup is a most basic protection level for every system. With filesystem backup I can select particular folder or file to be backup. For restore, I can choose particular folder or file to restore.

If user reported the folder or file is missing or corrupted from the system, administrator can restore the specific folder or file as per request. This will speed up the recovery process where only effected folder or file is restore.


  • Menu > Jobs > Create Backup Job.
  • Below show the parameter that need to fill in before I can create a backup job.

Note: For organization, it is good to have backup request form. All the information is fill up by the server/application administrator and submit to the backup administrator. This form is record for organization where the list of selection folder or file to backup and how long the backed up that will be keep in the organization. Time to time the backup list and retention need to review so that it match with the server/application Recovery Time Objective (RTO) and Recovery Point Objective (RPO) and most importantly the folder or file that need for recovery is available during the disaster happen.

  • At the Job Name,
    • Enter the Job Name that describe the backup that we want to do.
    • Example: AD01 Filesystem Backup Weekly Full
  • At the Selection,
    • click + icon.
    • Expand the AD01 > File System > Fixed Drives > C:\
    • Select the folder or file that need to protect.
    • In this example I will select folder Users.
    • Set Name for the selection.
    • Click Save.
  • At Plugin Options,
    • Click + icon.
    • Backup Method set to Snapshot Based.
    • Backup Type set to Full.
    • The rest option I left it as default.
    • Set Name for the Plugin Options.
    • Click Save.
  • At Schedule Options, I set the value is Immediate.
  • At Target Storage,
    • Click + icon.
    • Expand the Device Selection > Select Specify devices > Select NVBU VTL.
    • Expend the Media Options
      • Target Media By – Media in group. Set the label to VTL.
      • Reuse Media – With the same group label as target media.
      • Media Request Timeout – 30 Minutes.

Note: Media Options is important part because in this section I can categorize the tape from VTL for specific group. Example I have tape group for file system, database or application. This will split the content of the tape. Since I have limited tape, I just group it as VTL.

Note: Media Request Timeout is a amount of time for backup job waits for the backup media. If the media is not available within the specified interval, the job is automatically aborted.

  • At Advanced Options, I use the Default Advanced Backup Options. By default, the backed up data will no discard.
  • Review the Backup Job and click Save & Submit. The backup job will run the backup process immediate (base on schedule option).
  • Check on Backup Job Status. Menu > Monitoring > Job Status.
  • Below show the backup is complete with 148.44 MiB (155.65 MB) data.

Cool! The file system backup job created and tested running fine.